States of Consciousness
Our lives involve regular, dramatic changes in the degree to which we are aware of our surroundings and our internal states. While awake, we feel alert and aware of the many important things going on around us. Our experiences change dramatically while we are in deep sleep and once again when we are dreaming.
This chapter will discuss states of consciousness with a particular emphasis on sleep. The different stages of sleep will be identified, and sleep disorders will be described. The chapter will close with discussions of altered states of consciousness produced by psychoactive drugs, hypnosis, and meditation.
Aggarwal, S. K., Carter, G. T., Sullivan, M. D., ZumBrunnen, C., Morrill, R., & Mayer, J. D. (2009). Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: Historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5, 153–168.
Alhola, P. & Polo-Kantola, P. (2007). Sleep Deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 3, 553–557.
Alladin, A. (2012). Cognitive hypnotherapy for major depressive disorder. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 54, 275–293.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Aquina, C. T., Marques-Baptista, A., Bridgeman, P., & Merlin, M. A. (2009). Oxycontin abuse and overdose. Postgraduate Medicine, 121, 163–167.
Arnulf, I. (2012). REM sleep behavior disorder: Motor manifestations and pathophysiology. Movement Disorders, 27, 677–689.
Augustinova, M., & Ferrand, L. (2012). Suggestion does not de-automatize word reading: Evidence from the semantically based Stroop task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 521–527.
Banks, S., & Dinges, D. F. (2007). Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 3, 519–528.
Bartke, A., Sun, L. Y., & Longo, V. (2013). Somatotropic signaling: Trade-offs between growth, reproductive development, and longevity. Physiological Reviews, 93, 571–598.
Berkowitz, C. D. (2012). Sudden infant death syndrome, sudden unexpected infant death, and apparent life-threatening events. Advances in Pediatrics, 59, 183–208.
Berry, R. B., Kryger, M. H., & Massie, C. A. (2011). A novel nasal excitatory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: A randomized controlled trial. Sleep, 34, 479–485.
Bixler, E. O., Kales, A., Soldatos, C. R., Kales, J. D., & Healey, S. (1979). Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1257–1262.
Bostwick, J. M. (2012). Blurred boundaries: The therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 87, 172–186.
Brook, R. D., Appel, L. J., Rubenfire, M., Ogedegbe, G., Bisognano, J. D., Elliott, W. K., . . . Rajagopalan, S. (2013). Beyond medications and diet: Alternative approaches to lowering blood pressure: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension, 61, 1360–1383.
Broughton, R., Billings, R., Cartwright, R., Doucette, D., Edmeads, J., Edwardh, M., . . . Turrell, G. (1994). Homicidal somnambulism: A case report. Sleep, 17, 253–264.
Brown, L. K. (2012). Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep? Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, 18, 541–545.
Burgess, C. R., & Scammell, T. E. (2012). Narcolepsy: Neural mechanisms of sleepiness and cataplexy. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 12305–12311.
Cai, D. J., Mednick, S. A., Harrison, E. M., Kanady, J. C., & Mednick, S. C. (2009). REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 106, 10130–10134.
Caldwell, K., Harrison, M., Adams, M., Quin, R. H., & Greeson, J. (2010). Developing mindfulness in college students through movement based courses: Effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep quality. Journal of American College Health, 58, 433–442.
Capellini, I., Barton, R. A., McNamara, P., Preston, B. T., & Nunn, C. L. (2008). Phylogenetic analysis of the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep. Evolution, 62, 1764–1776.
Cartwright, R. (2004). Sleepwalking violence: A sleep disorder, a legal dilemma, and a psychological challenge. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1149–1158.
Cartwright, R., Agargun, M. Y., Kirkby, J., & Friedman, J. K. (2006). Relation of dreams to waking concerns. Psychiatry Research, 141, 261–270.
Casati, A., Sedefov, R., & Pfeiffer-Gerschel, T. (2012). Misuse of medications in the European Union: A systematic review of the literature. European Addiction Research, 18, 228–245.
Chen, K. W., Berger, C. C., Manheimer, E., Forde, D., Magidson, J., Dachman, L., & Lejuez, C. W. (2013). Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 545–562.
Chokroverty, S. (2010). Overview of sleep & sleep disorders. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 131, 126–140.
Christensen, A., Bentley, G. E., Cabrera, R., Ortega, H. H., Perfito, N., Wu, T. J., & Micevych, P. (2012). Hormonal regulation of female reproduction. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 44, 587–591.
CNN. (1999, June 25). ‘Sleepwalker’ convicted of murder. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/US/9906/25/sleepwalker.01/
Cropley, M., Theadom, A., Pravettoni, G., & Webb, G. (2008). The effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions prior to surgery: A systematic review. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10, 407–412.
De la Herrán-Arita, A. K., & Drucker-Colín, R. (2012). Models for narcolepsy with cataplexy drug discovery. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, 7, 155–164.
Del Casale, A., Ferracuti, S., Rapinesi, C., Serata, D., Sani, G., Savoja, V., . . . Girardi, P. (2012). Neurocognition under hypnosis: Findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 60, 286–317.
Elkins, G., Johnson, A., & Fisher, W. (2012). Cognitive hypnotherapy for pain management. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 54, 294–310.
Ellenbogen, J. M., Hu, P. T., Payne, J. D., Titone, D., & Walker, M. P. (2007). Human relational memory requires time and sleep. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 104, 7723–7728.
Fell, J., Axmacher, N., & Haupt, S. (2010). From alpha to gamma: Electrophysiological correlates meditation-related states of consciousness. Medical Hypotheses, 75, 218–224.
Fenn, K. M., Nusbaum, H. C., & Margoliash, D. (2003). Consolidation during sleep of perceptual learning of spoken language. Nature, 425, 614–616.
Ferini-Strambi, L. (2011). Does idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) really exist? What are the potential markers of neurodegeneration in iRBD [Supplemental material]? Sleep Medicine, 12(2 Suppl.), S43–S49.
Fiorentini, A., Volonteri, L.S., Dragogna, F., Rovera, C., Maffini, M., Mauri, M. C., & Altamura, C. A. (2011). Substance-induced psychoses: A critical review of the literature. Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 4, 228–240.
Fogel, S. M., & Smith, C. T. (2011). The function of the sleep spindle: A physiological index of intelligence and a mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1154–1165.
Frank, M. G. (2006). The mystery of sleep function: Current perspectives and future directions. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17, 375–392.
Freeman, M. P., Fava, M., Lake, J., Trivedi, M. H., Wisner, K. L., & Mischoulon, D. (2010). Complementary and alternative medicine in major depressive disorder: The American Psychiatric Association task force report. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71, 669–681.
Giedke, H., & Schwärzler, F. (2002). Therapeutic use of sleep deprivation in depression. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6, 361–377.
Gold, D. R., Rogacz, S. R., Bock, N., Tosteson, T. D., Baum, T. M., Speizer, F. M., & Czeisler, C. A. (1992). Rotating shift work, sleep, and accidents related to sleepiness in hospital nurses. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1011–1014.
Golden, W. L. (2012). Cognitive hypnotherapy for anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 54, 263–274.
Gómez, R. L., Bootzin, R. R., & Nadel, L. (2006). Naps promote abstraction in language-learning infants. Psychological Science, 17, 670–674.
Guilleminault, C., Kirisoglu, C., Bao, G., Arias, V., Chan, A., & Li, K. K. (2005). Adult chronic sleepwalking and its treatment based on polysomnography. Brain, 128, 1062–1069.
Gujar, N., Yoo, S., Hu, P., & Walker, M. P. (2011). Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 4466–4474.
Guldenmund, P., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Boly, M., Laureys, S., & Soddu, A. (2012). A default mode of brain function in altered states of consciousness. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 150, 107–121.
Halász, P. (1993). Arousals without awakening—Dynamic aspect of sleep. Physiology and Behavior, 54, 795–802.
Han, F. (2012). Sleepiness that cannot be overcome: Narcolepsy and cataplexy. Respirology, 17, 1157–1165.
Hardeland, R., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., & Cardinali, D. P. (2006). Melatonin. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 38, 313–316.
Haasen, C., & Krausz, M. (2001). Myths versus experience with respect to cocaine and crack: Learning from the US experience. European Addiction Research, 7, 159–160.
Henry, D., & Rosenthal, L. (2013). “Listening for his breath:” The significance of gender and partner reporting on the diagnosis, management, and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Social Science & Medicine, 79, 48–56.
Hicks, R. A., Fernandez, C., & Pelligrini, R. J. (2001). The changing sleep habits of university students: An update. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 93, 648.
Hicks, R. A., Johnson, C., & Pelligrini, R. J. (1992). Changes in the self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep duration of college students (1978 and 1992). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75, 1168–1170.
Hilgard, E. R., & Hilgard, J. R. (1994). Hypnosis in the Relief of Pain. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Hishikawa, Y., & Shimizu, T. (1995). Physiology of REM sleep, cataplexy, and sleep paralysis. Advances in Neurology, 67, 245–271.
Herman, A., & Herman, A. P. (2013). Caffeine’s mechanism of action and its cosmetic use. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 26, 8–14.
Hobson, J. A. (2009). REM sleep and dreaming: Towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 803–814.
Horikawa,T., Tamaki, M., Miyawaki, Y. & Kamitani, Y. (2013). Neural Decoding of Visual Imagery During Sleep. Science, 340(6132), 639–642. doi:10.1126/science.1234330
Hossain, J. L., & Shapiro, C. M. (2002). The prevalence, cost implications, and management of sleep disorders: An overview. Sleep and Breathing, 6, 85–102.
Huang, L. B., Tsai, M. C., Chen, C. Y., & Hsu, S. C. (2013). The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9, 641–646.
Huber, R., Ghilardi, M. F., Massimini, M., & Tononi, G. (2004). Local sleep and learning. Nature, 430, 78–81.
Jayanthi, L. D., & Ramamoorthy, S. (2005). Regulation of monoamine transporters: Influence of psychostimulants and therapeutic antidepressants. The AAPS Journal, 7, E728–738.
Julien, R. M. (2005). Opioid analgesics. In A primer of drug action: A comprehensive guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs (pp. 461–500). Portland, OR: Worth.
Kihlstrom, J. F. (2013). Neuro-hypnotism: Prospects for hypnosis and neuroscience. Cortex, 49, 365–374.
Klein, D. C., Moore, R. Y., & Reppert, S. M. (Eds.). (1991). Suprachiasmatic nucleus: The mind’s clock. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Kogan, N. M., & Mechoulam, R. (2007). Cannabinoids in health and disease. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9, 413–430.
Kromann, C. B., & Nielson, C. T. (2012). A case of cola dependency in a woman with recurrent depression. BMC Research Notes, 5, 692.
Lang, A. J., Strauss, J. L., Bomeya, J., Bormann, J. E., Hickman, S. D., Good, R. C., & Essex, M. (2012). The theoretical and empirical basis for meditation as an intervention for PTSD. Behavior Modification, 36, 759–786.
LaBerge, S. (1990). Lucid dreaming: Psychophysiological studies of consciousness during REM sleep. In R. R. Bootzen, J. F. Kihlstrom, & D. L. Schacter (Eds.), Sleep and cognition (pp. 109–126). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lesku, J. A., Roth, T. C., 2nd, Amlaner, C. J., & Lima, S. L. (2006). A phylogenetic analysis of sleep architecture in mammals: The integration of anatomy, physiology, and ecology. The American Naturalist, 168, 441–453.
Levitt, C., Shaw, E., Wong, S., & Kaczorowski, J. (2007). Systematic review of the literature on postpartum care: Effectiveness of interventions for smoking relapse prevention, cessation, and reduction in postpartum women. Birth, 34, 341–347.
Lifshitz, M., Aubert Bonn, N., Fischer, A., Kashem, I. F., & Raz, A. (2013). Using suggestion to modulate automatic processes: From Stroop to McGurk and beyond. Cortex, 49, 463–473.
Luppi, P. H., Clément, O., Sapin, E., Gervasoni, D., Peyron, C., Léger, L., . . . Fort, P. (2011). The neuronal network responsible for paradoxical sleep and its dysfunctions causing narcolepsy and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 15, 153–163.
Mage, D. T., & Donner, M. (2006). Female resistance to hypoxia: Does it explain the sex difference in mortality rates? Journal of Women’s Health, 15, 786–794.
Mahowald, M. W., & Schenck, C. H. (2000). Diagnosis and management of parasomnias. Clinical Cornerstone, 2, 48–54.
Mahowald, M. W., Schenck, C. H., & Cramer Bornemann, M. A. (2005). Sleep-related violence. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 5, 153–158.
Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Sleep terrors (night terrors). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/night-terrors/basics/treatment/con-20032552
Mather, L. E., Rauwendaal, E. R., Moxham-Hall, V. L., & Wodak, A. D. (2013). (Re)introducing medical cannabis. The Medical Journal of Australia, 199, 759–761.
Maxwell, J. C. (2006). Trends in the abuse of prescription drugs. Gulf Coast Addiction Technology Transfer Center. Retrieved from http://asi.nattc.org/userfiles/file/GulfCoast/PrescriptionTrends_Web.pdf
McCarty, D. E. (2010). A case of narcolepsy with strictly unilateral cataplexy. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 15, 75–76.
McDaid, C., Durée, K. H., Griffin, S. C., Weatherly, H. L., Stradling, J. R., Davies, R. J., . . . Westwood, M. E. (2009). A systematic review of continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 13, 427–436.
McKim, W. A., & Hancock, S. D. (2013). Drugs and behavior: An introduction to behavioral pharmacology, 7th edition. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Mignot, E. J. M. (2012). A practical guide to the therapy of narcolepsy and hypersomnia syndromes. Neurotherapeutics, 9, 739–752.
Miller, N. L., Shattuck, L. G., & Matsangas, P. (2010). Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets. Sleep, 33, 1623–1631.
Mitchell, E. A. (2009). SIDS: Past, present and future. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 1712–1719.
Montgomery, G. H., Schnur, J. B., & Kravits, K. (2012). Hypnosis for cancer care: Over 200 years young. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63, 31–44.
National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Information about sleep. Retrieved from http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih3/sleep/guide/info-sleep.htm
National Research Council. (1994). Learning, remembering, believing: Enhancing human performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
National Sleep Foundation. (n.d.). How much sleep do we really need? Retrieved from http://sleepfoundation.org/how-sleep-works/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need
Ohayon, M. M. (1997). Prevalence of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of insomnia: Distinguishing insomnia related to mental disorders from sleep disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 31, 333–346.
Ohayon, M. M. (2002). Epidemiology of insomnia: What we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6, 97–111.
Ohayon, M. M., Carskadon, M. A., Guilleminault, C., & Vitiello, M. V. (2004). Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: Developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep, 27, 1255–1273.
Ohayon, M. M., & Roth, T. (2002). Prevalence of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the general population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 547–554.
Poe, G. R., Walsh, C. M., & Bjorness, T. E. (2010). Cognitive neuroscience of sleep. Progress in Brain Research, 185, 1–19.
Porkka-Heiskanen, T. (2011). Methylxanthines and sleep. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 200, 331–348.
Presser, H. B. (1995). Job, family, and gender: Determinants of nonstandard work schedules among employed Americans in 1991. Demography, 32, 577–598.
Pressman, M. R. (2007). Disorders of arousal from sleep and violent behavior: The role of physical contact and proximity. Sleep, 30, 1039–1047.
Provini, F., Tinuper, P., Bisulli, F., & Lagaresi, E. (2011). Arousal disorders [Supplemental material]. Sleep Medicine, 12(2 Suppl.), S22–S26.
Rattenborg, N. C., Lesku, J. A., Martinez-Gonzalez, D., & Lima, S. L. (2007). The non-trivial functions of sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11, 405–409.
Raz, A. (2011). Hypnosis: A twilight zone of the top-down variety: Few have never heard of hypnosis but most know little about the potential of this mind-body regulation technique for advancing science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 555–557.
Raz, A., Shapiro, T., Fan, J., & Posner, M. I. (2002). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1151–1161.
Reiner, K., Tibi, L., & Lipsitz, J. D. (2013). Do mindfulness-based interventions reduce pain intensity? A critical review of the literature. Pain Medicine, 14, 230–242.
Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation. (n.d.). Restless legs syndrome: Causes, diagnosis, and treatment for the patient living with Restless legs syndrome (RSL). Retrieved from www.rls.org
Rial, R. V., Nicolau, M. C., Gamundí, A., Akaârir, M., Aparicio, S., Garau, C., . . . Esteban, S. (2007). The trivial function of sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 11, 311–325.
Riemann, D., Berger, M., & Volderholzer, U. (2001). Sleep and depression—Results from psychobiological studies: An overview. Biological Psychology, 57, 67–103.
Reinerman, C. (2007, October 14). 5 myths about that demon crack. Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/09/AR2007100900751.html
Reissig, C. J., Strain, E. C., & Griffiths, R. R. (2009). Caffeinated energy drinks—A growing problem. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 99, 1–10.
Robson, P. J. (2014). Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6, 24–30.
Roth, T. (2007). Insomnia: Definition, prevalence, etiology, and consequences [Supplemental material]. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 3(5 Suppl.), S7–S10.
Rothman, R. B., Blough, B. E., & Baumann, M. H. (2007). Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers as potential medications for stimulant and alcohol addictions. The AAPS Journal, 9, E1–10.
Sánchez-de-la-Torre, M., Campos-Rodriguez, F., & Barbé, F. (2012). Obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, 1, 31–72.
Savard, J., Simard, S., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2005). Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, part I: Sleep and psychological effects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 6083–6096.
Schicho, R., & Storr, M. (2014). Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn’s disease. Pharmacology, 93, 1–3.
Shukla, R. K, Crump, J. L., & Chrisco, E. S. (2012). An evolving problem: Methamphetamine production and trafficking in the United States. International Journal of Drug Policy, 23, 426–435.
Siegel, J. M. (2008). Do all animals sleep? Trends in Neuroscience, 31, 208–213.
Siegel, J. M. (2001). The REM sleep-memory consolidation hypothesis. Science, 294, 1058–1063.
Singh, G. K., & Siahpush, M. (2006). Widening socioeconomic inequalities in US life expectancy, 1980–2000. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35, 969–979.
Smedslund, G., Fisher, K. J., Boles, S. M., & Lichtenstein, E. (2004). The effectiveness of workplace smoking cessation programmes: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Tobacco Control, 13, 197–204.
Sofikitis, N., Giotitsas, N., Tsounapi, P., Baltogiannis, D., Giannakis, D., & Pardalidis, N. (2008). Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 109, 323–330.
Steriade, M., & Amzica, F. (1998). Slow sleep oscillation, rhythmic K-complexes, and their paroxysmal developments [Supplemental material]. Journal of Sleep Research, 7(1 Suppl.), 30–35.
Stickgold, R. (2005). Sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Nature, 437, 1272–1278.
Stone, K. C., Taylor, D. J., McCrae, C. S., Kalsekar, A., & Lichstein, K. L. (2008). Nonrestorative sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12, 275–288.
Suchecki, D., Tiba, P. A., & Machado, R. B. (2012). REM sleep rebound as an adaptive response to stressful situations. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 3. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00041
Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128, 1030–1039.
Taillard, J., Philip, P., Coste, O., Sagaspe, P., & Bioulac, B. (2003). The circadian and homeostatic modulation of sleep pressure during wakefulness differs between morning and evening chronotypes. Journal of Sleep Research, 12, 275–282.
Thach, B. T. (2005). The role of respiratory control disorders in SIDS. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 149, 343–353.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2013, October 24). Statement on Proposed Hydrocodone Reclassification from Janet Woodcock, M.D., Director, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/ucm372089.htm
Vogel, G. W. (1975). A review of REM sleep deprivation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 749–761.
Vøllestad, J., Nielsen, M. B., & Nielsen, G. H. (2012). Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions for anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 239–260.
Wagner, U., Gais, S., & Born, J. (2001). Emotional memory formation is enhanced across sleep intervals with high amounts of rapid eye movement sleep. Learning & Memory, 8, 112–119.
Wagner, U., Gais, S., Haider, H., Verleger, R., & Born, J. (2004). Sleep improves insight. Nature, 427, 352–355.
Walker, M. P. (2009). The role of sleep in cognition and emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 168–197.
Wark, D. M. (2011). Traditional and alert hypnosis for education: A literature review. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 54(2), 96–106.
Waterhouse. J., Fukuda, Y., & Morita, T. (2012). Daily rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle [Special issue]. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 31(5). doi:10.1186/1880-6805-31-5
Welsh, D. K. Takahashi, J. S., & Kay, S. A. (2010). Suprachiasmatic nucleus: Cell autonomy and network properties. Annual Review of Physiology, 72, 551–577.
West, S., Boughton, M., & Byrnes, M. (2009). Juggling multiple temporalities: The shift work story of mid-life nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 17, 110–119.
White, D. P. (2005). Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 172, 1363–1370.
Williams, J., Roth, A., Vatthauer, K., & McCrae, C. S. (2013). Cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia. Chest, 143, 554–565.
Williamson, A. M., & Feyer, A. M. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 649–655.
Wolt, B. J., Ganetsky, M., & Babu, K. M. (2012). Toxicity of energy drinks. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24, 243–251.
Zangini, S., Calandra-Buonaura, G., Grimaldi, D., & Cortelli, P. (2011). REM behaviour disorder and neurodegenerative diseases [Supplemental material]. Sleep Medicine, 12(2 Suppl.), S54–S58.
Zeidan, F., Grant, J. A., Brown, C. A., McHaffie, J. G., & Coghill, R. C. (2012). Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: Evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain. Neuroscience Letters, 520, 165–173.