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Chapter 11. Trace Minerals

Summary of Trace Minerals

Table 11.12 Summary of the Trace Minerals

Micronutrient Sources Recommended Intakes for adults Major Functions Deficiency diseases and symptoms Groups at risk for deficiency Toxicity UL
Iron Red meat, egg yolks, dark leafy vegetables, dried fruit, iron-fortified foods 8-18 mg/day Assists in energy production, DNA synthesis required for red blood cell function Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate Infants and preschool children, adolescents, women, pregnant women, athletes, vegetarians Liver damage, increased risk of diabetes and cancer 45 mg/day
Copper Nuts, seeds, whole grains, seafood 900 mcg/day Assists in energy production, iron metabolism Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate Those who consume excessive zinc supplements Vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, liver damage 10 mg/day
Zinc oysters, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, squash,, beans, sesame seeds, tahini, beef, lamb 8-11 mg/day Assists in energy production, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis; required for hemoglobin synthesis Growth retardation in children, hair loss, diarrhea, skin sores, loss of appetite, weight loss Vegetarians, older adults Depressed immune function 40 mg/day
Selenium Meat, seafood, eggs, nuts 55 mcg/day Essential for thyroid hormone activity Fatigue, muscle pain, weakness, Keshan disease Populations where the soil is low in selenium Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue 400  mcg/day
Iodine Iodized salt, seaweed, dairy products 150 mcg/day Making thyroid hormone, metabolism, growth and development Goiter, cretinism, other signs and symptoms include fatigue, depression, weight gain, itchy skin, low heart-rate Populations where the soil is low in iodine, and iodized salt is not used Enlarged thyroid 1110 mcg/day
Chromium 25-35 mcg/day Assists insulin in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism abnormal glucose metabolism Malnourished children None ND
Fluoride Fluoridated water, foods prepared in fluoridated water, seafood 3-4 mg/day Component of mineralized bone, provides structure and microarchitecture, stimulates new bone growth Increased risk of dental caries Populations with non fluoridated water Fluorosis mottled teeth, kidney damage 10 mg/day
Manganese Legumes, nuts, leafy green vegetables 1.8-2.3 mg/day Glucose synthesis, amino-acid catabolism Impaired growth, skeletal abnormalities, abnormal glucose metabolism None Nerve damage 11 mg/day
Molybdenum Milk, grains, legumes 45 mcg/day Cofactor for a number of enzymes Unknown None Arthritis, joint inflammation 2 mg/day