Number and Operations

    \[ a+b = b+a \]

The essence of mathematics is not to make simple things complicated, but to make complicated things simple.

-S. Gudder

The “Dots and Boxes” approach to understanding operations used in this part (and throughout this book) comes from James Tanton, and is used with his permission. See his development of these and other ideas at http://gdaymath.com/.

License

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Mathematics for Elementary Teachers by Michelle Manes is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.